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2012级心理健康教育专业硕士毕业论文摘要

表达性写作对中学生负性情绪的干预研究

作者:徐影影   指导老师:闻素霞 教授

摘 要:初中生正值青春期, 面临着许多矛盾和冲突,常常使他们产生许多不良情绪。但他们尚不能很好的控制和调节自己的情绪。然而负性情绪影响其认知,不利于形成健康的人格。而青少年正处于人格塑造的关键期,引导其正确处理负性情绪,对其健康发展至关重要。
本研究以初中生为研究对象,采用心理测验法与实验法相结合的方式探索表达性写作对抑郁、焦虑负性情绪的干预作用。本研究包括两部分,研究一运用生活事件量表、抑郁自评量表、状态-特质焦虑问卷对乌鲁木齐市5所中学的1160名中学生进行调查。分析中学生负性生活事件、抑郁、焦虑现状,探讨生活事件与初中生抑郁、焦虑的关系。
研究二采用了与典型写作实验类似的写作范式,运用行为实验和追踪测量相结合的方法。实验中选取研究一中各量表得分较高的60名中学生随机分配到情感表达组、情感表达与认知加工组,根据不同的指导语来完成实验。通过比较不同类型的写作任务前后,个体抑郁、焦虑状态的变化,探讨表达性写作对抑郁、焦虑负性情绪的影响,分析不同的写作类型对中学生负性情绪影响作用的表现特点,进而分析情感表达与认知加工在表达性写作中的作用。
本研究得出如下结论:
(1)中学生抑郁、焦虑情绪问题存在性别差异,随年级不同负性情绪有不同表现;青少年生活事件量表中的大多数项目均与中学生抑郁、状态焦虑呈显著正相关。
(2)情绪表达写作和情绪表达与认知加工写作都能有效改善中学生负性情绪;采用表达性写作对中学生干预无性别、民族差异。
(3)表达性写作对负性情绪的影响是通过表达宣泄负面情绪后,经重新评价负性事件达到改变对负性事件的认知来改善负性情绪的。
写作治疗是促进我国学生心理健康发展的有效途径之一,本研究得出的结论可以为在学校进行中学生写作治疗干预提供实践借鉴有利于促进写作治疗这一干预方法的推广,从而对学生的情绪会起到一定的宣泄、表达作用,促使学生建立正确的认知方式。进而预防和减少学生心理问题的发生,促进学生身心和谐发展。

关键词:表达性写作;抑郁;焦虑;中学生

A Study of Expressive Writing Intervention on Negative Emotions
Abstract:This study adopted the way of psychological test method and experimental method to explore the expressive writing intervention effect of the negative emotions: depression and anxiety for middle school students.
This dissertation investigated randomly 1160 students of 5 middle schools in Urumqi. All subjects completed a variety of scales: Adolescent Self Rating Life Events Scale, Self -Rating Depression Scale and State -Trait Anxiety Questionnaire.
Study 1 showed the present situation of the middle school students’ life events, depression and anxiety, then explored the relationship between life events and depression, anxiety.
Study 2 explored the experimental study mode of writing or expressive writing. The study combined the behavioral experiments and tracking measurement method. In the experiments, 60 middle school students whose scale scores are higher were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group of emotional expression, group of emotional and cognitive processing. Subjects completed the experiments according to the instructions. Up to six months, one year, one and a half years after this writing, all subjects completed the above scales once more. By comparing the changes of individual depression, anxiety state before different types of writing tasks and after, explored the expressive writing effects on depression and anxiety, analyzed the characteristics of different types of writing influence on high school students negative emotions. Try to explore the role of Emotional expression and cognitive processing in expressive writing.
The results showed that there is gender difference in depression and anxiety problem of middle school students, the characteristics of negative emotions is not the same in different grade. Most subprojects of adolescent life events scale was positively related significantly with middle school students' state of depression and anxiety.
The results indicated that both Emotional expression writing and emotional expression and cognitive processing could effectively improve middle school students' negative emotions; the expressive writing intervention for middle school students has no gender, ethnic differences.
The research result showed that the emotional expression in writing is the essential condition in affecting negative emotions. The cognitive process is based on the emotional expression. The influence of expressive writing to negative emotions was after expressing their negative emotions, through cognitive processing to re-evaluate the negative event, change the cognition of the negative event to improve the negative emotions.

Key Words: Expressive Writing, Depression, Anxiety, Middle School Students

 

初中生消极身体意象的心理干预研究
作者:胡适   指导老师:贾徳梅 教授

摘 要:身体意象是个体对自己身体的主观认知、感受及相应行为。而消极身体意象是指个体认识自己身体时,持主观偏见的态度而产生消极的情绪,并伴随着不健康的行为方式对待自己的身体。消极身体意象在心理行为问题上的影响作用主要表现在对身体的不满意,可能会引起身体意象失调,严重的话会导致体像障碍。本研究的主要目的是探索初中生身体意象的总体特征,设计出有效的干预方案对初中生消极身体意象进行干预,帮助他们改变其消极的身体意象,降低身体意象的不满意程度,建立积极健康的身体观。
本研究分为现状调查和团体干预两部分。首先,采取随机分层抽样的方式选取乌鲁木齐市五所中学的1006名初中生,进行多维自我体像关系调查问卷(MBRSQ)的调查,了解初中生身体意象各个维度的基线水平。然后,根据初中生身体意象的现状分析结果,筛选有消极身体意象的初中生进行团体干预。研究结果如下:
初中生身体意象总体处于中等满意水平,且女生的身体部位满意度要低于男生。外表关注的年级差异显著,初一年级与初二、初三年级存在显著性差异,初二与初三无显著性差异。在年龄、独生子女、家庭所在地上没有显著性差异。
(2)外表评估、外表关注、体能健康评估、体能健康关注、身体部位满意度的民族差异显著。母亲文化程度在大专及以上的学生在体能健康评估、身体部位满意度上显著高于文化程度在高中、中专或初中以下学历的学生。父亲文化程度差异不显著。
(3)家庭月收入高低与外表评估、外表关注得分呈正比,即收入越高,外表评估和关注得分越高。
(4)外表评估、外表关注、体能健康评估、体能健康关注、疾病关注、过重担忧、体重自我分类的身体质量指数BMI差异显著。BMI对身体意象有一定的预示作用。
(5)本研究设计的对初中生消极身体意象的干预辅导是有效果的。具体表现为对照组8个维度得分均无显著性差异。而实验组除疾病关注和体重自我分类外,其余6个维度得分均有显著性差异。

关键词:初中生 身体意象 心理干预

The intervention study of negative body image in junior high school students
Abstract:Body image refers to how you personally experience your embodiment, encompassing your perceptions, beliefs, thoughts, feelings and actions that pertain to your physical appearance. If you indicates extreme dissatisfaction with your physical appearance and associates with a range of emotional and behavioral problems, you have a negative body image. Sometimes a negative body image is a part of a more complex problem, like body image disturbance or body dysmorphic disorder. This research try to find out the general survey of junior high school students’ body image, intervene the students who have negative body image and help them change how they think, act and feel in order to have happier, more fulfilling lives.
The study is divided into two parts, the investigation and intervention. Take a random stratified sampling method to select? five junior high schools’ students from Urumqi which complete the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire (MBRSQ) to understanding of the overall situation. Then selects some students with negative body image to intervene. The results are following:
The overall satisfaction of junior high school students is in medium level, and girl’s body satisfaction is lower than boy’s. In appearance concerns, there is a obvious difference between the first grade and the other grades, there is no obvious difference between the second and the third grade. There is no obvious difference in age, one-child and hometown.
Race have no obvious difference in appearance evaluation, appearance concerns, physical health assessment, physical health concerns, body parts satisfaction. The average score whose mother’s education with tertiary and beyond is higher than those educational ground below in physical health assessment and body parts satisfaction. There is no obvious difference in fathers educational ground.
Family incomes is proportional to the average score of appearance evaluation and appearance concerns. The more income, more score.
BMI have a obvious difference in appearance evaluation, appearance concerns, physical health assessment, physical health concerns, disease concern and worries, overweight preoccupation and self classified weight. BMI can predict body image.
The intervention measures in study are helpful to build a positive body image. Control group have no obvious difference between before and after test data. Treat group have a obvious difference between before and after test data besides disease concern and worries and self classified weight.

Key Words:Junior High Schools’ students, Body Image, Psychological Intervention

 

时间管理训练对初中学习拖延者的干预研究
作者:侯智慧   指导教师:闻素霞 教授

摘 要:时间管理倾向是个人使用时间的时候呈现出的心理特征与行为特征,包括时间价值感、时间效能感和时间监控观三个维度。学习拖延是指个人学习情境中产生的拖延行为。时间管理因素是在导致学业拖延行为的因素中, 认同程度最高的一项。
本文为实证研究,共分为两部分。研究一以乌鲁木齐市819名中学生为调查对象,对他们的时间管理和学习拖延的现状及其联系进行调查。研究二为干预研究,筛选出在时间管理和学习拖延两项的得分上都存在问题的9名学生作为干预研究对象,通过提高被试的时间管理水平进而达到对学习拖延的改善。干预过程共8次,每次60分钟,通过团体辅导的方式进行,主要从时间价值感、时间效能感和时间监控观三方面进行干预,以改善学生严重的学习拖延行为。
研究结果如下:
(1)初中生时间管理水平普遍较好,但仍然存在17.2%的检出率,时间价值感、时间效能感和监控观也达到常模水平,检出率分别11.3%、17.9%、30.1%,这一部分学生的时间管理水平有提高的必要性,其中时间效能感和监控观需得到重视。
(2)现阶段初中生的学习拖延程度并不严重,检出率占到27%。在拖延程度、拖延烦恼、拖延减少的愿望三分量表上的检出率分别是28.9%、35.7%、62.3%,初中生在拖延程度和拖延烦恼两个维度上问题较为突出。
(3)本研究设计的时间管理训练可有效提高被试的时间管理水平,进而缓解其学习拖延的程度。具体表现为,被试的时间管理总量表及三个分量表前后测得分差异显著,干预方案对提高被试时间管理的各个维度作用显著;被试除了拖延减少的愿望这一维度上前后测差异未达到统计学意义,在学习拖延总量表、拖延程度和拖延烦恼两个分量表上干预前后测量的得分均有显著性差异。

关键词: 时间管理训练;学习拖延;初中生;团体干预

The intervention study of time management training for junior academic procrastinators
Abstract:Time management tendency refers to what the psychological and behavioral characteristics when the individual presents to use the time.includes three dimensions that sense of the value of time,efficacy of time and ability to monitor time. Academic procrastination is the delay behavior in learning situation.time management is the the most influential factor of recognition that lead to delay behavior in learning.
This research is an empirical study divided into two parts.part 1select 819 junior high school students from Urumqi,Investigate their time management and academic procrastination situation and the relationship between them.part 2 as a intervention research,select 9 students as the object of intervention study that have synchronous problems in their time management and academic procrastination.Intervention process 8 times, each time for 60 minutes, group counseling as staple method mainly from three dimensions of time management to ameliorate students’serious learning procrastination.the results are following:
Junior high school students have better time management,the synthesized ATMD and its three dimensions average scores of Junior high school students just reached the standard,the detection rate was 17.2%, 11.3%, 17.9%, 30.1%.This part of the students' time management level has the necessity to improve,in which the efficacy of time and ability to monitor time requires attention.
At the present stage,junior high school students did not show a significant delay behavior in academic learning, academic procrastination in the overall level is not serious.the synthesized PASS and its three dimensions’detection rate was 27%、28.9%、35.7%、62.3%.problems of the degree of delay and the annoyance caused by delay were more prominent.
The time management training designed by this study can effectively improve students’time management,and than ameliorate serious learning procrastination.the specific performance:there is obvious difference between the test of ATMD and its three dimensions before and after;there is obvious difference between the test of PASS and its dimensions before and after except the dimension that the desire to reduce academic procrastination.
Keywords:time management training;academic procrastination;junior high school students;group intervention

 

认知行为疗法对ADHD儿童的干预效果研究
作者:高倩   指导老师:买合甫来提 教授

摘 要:注意力缺陷多动障碍(Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,ADHD)是一种儿童时期发病的精神类疾病,共分为三种亚型,包括注意缺陷型、多动-—冲动型和混合型。
本研究共分为两个部分,第一部分为乌鲁木齐市头屯河区ADHD流行病学调查。主要采用DSM-IV诊断卷和家庭情况调查表对头屯河区三所小学进行ADHD筛查,并探讨影响其发病的主要因素。
第二部分选择三种亚型共6名ADHD儿童进行团体治疗。本研究在以往认知-行为疗法的基础上增加了基础认知训练,因此整个训练分为两个阶段。第一阶段为基础认知训练(注意力基础训练)共计15次,主要从视觉和听觉两方面入手。第二阶段自我控制训练(问题解决训练)共计7次,主要锻炼儿童“先思后行”的能力。采用数字化消测验,Conners教师及家长问卷,Vanderbilt教师及家长问卷,在治疗前、第一阶段治疗完成后、第二阶段治疗完成后对患儿进行评定,通过患儿治疗各期前后评定对比,探讨增加基础注意力训练的认知行为疗法对ADHD儿童的治疗效果及对不同性别、亚型的疗效特点。
结果如下:
(1)DSM-IV问卷中ADHD的检出率为 11.3%,以注意缺陷型为主,男性高于女性,比例为1.9:1,且年龄差异不显著。
(2)父母的文化程度与DSM-IV 问卷中ADHD检出率有关,文化程度越高, 检出率越低。
(3)采用增加基础认知训练后的认知行为疗法对三种亚型的ADHD儿童的核心症状具有显著的改善作用。
(4)采用增加基础认知训练后的认知行为疗法对混合型儿童治疗效果最好,多动-冲动型效果其次,注意力缺陷型效果最差。
(5)采用增加基础认知训练后的认知行为疗法对男性患儿治疗效果比女性患儿治疗效果更好。

关键词:ADHD儿童;认知行为疗法;基础注意力训练;问题解决训练

Study on the cognitive-behavior intervention of the ADHD children

Abstract:Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, ADHD) is a childhood onset of mental illness , is divided into three subtypes , predominantly Inattentive type、hyperactive—impulsive type、combined type.
The study is divided into two parts; the first part is ADHD epidemiological investigation of Urumqi Toutunhe. The ADHD screening mainly using family situation questionnaire and DSM-IV questionnaire in three primary schools of Toutunhe , and explore the main factors affecting the disease.
The second part is choice of three subtypes of ADHD children were six students as a treatment groups .The study based on previous cognitive - behavioral therapy, increase in the basic cognitive training, so the training is divided into two stages. The first stage is based cognitive training (basic training for attention) a total of 15 times, mainly from the visual and aural aspects. The second stage of self- control training (problem-solving training) a total of seven times, the main exercise for children the capability of “first thought underwent ". Use of Number Cancel Test , Conners Parent Rating Scale and Conners Teacher Rating Scale, Vanderbilt ADHD Parent Rating Scale and Vanderbilt ADHD Teacher Rating Scale in before treatment, after completion of the first phase of treatment, after the completion of the second phase of treatment were assessed in children. Through comparing each period Treatment of children assessed, to explore after increased the basis of cognitive training in cognitive - behavioral therapy training for children with ADHD and treatment of different gender, the efficacy of the characteristics of subtypes.
The results:
(1)The detection of ADHD in DSM-IV questionnaire was 11.3%, attention defect is main type, male is higher than female, the ratio of 1.9:1, and the age difference is not significant.
(2)Parental education levels are relate to the detection rate of ADHD in DSM-IV questionnaire,   the higher the education level, the lower detection rate;
(3)Using increased the basis of cognitive training in cognitive - behavioral therapy training for the three subtypes has significant improvement.
(4)Using? increased the basis of cognitive training in cognitive - behavioral therapy training for the combined type best, hyperactive一impulsive type secondly , predominantly inattentive type worst.
(5)Using increased the basis of cognitive training in cognitive - behavioral therapy training for the male children is better than the effect of treatment of female children .
Keywords: ADHD children; cognitive behavioral therapy; attention training; problem-solving training

 

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